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Medina Azahara – combinación Arqueológico Madinat al-Zahra, Córdoba, Spain
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Medina Azahara (Arabic: مدينة الزهراء‎ “the shining city”) is ns ruins of uno vast, fortified Moorish medieval palace-city built by Abd-ar-Rahman III (912–961), the first Umayyad Caliph the Córdoba, y located on the western outskirts of Córdoba, Spain. That was un medieval Moorish town and the ese facto capital of al-Andalus, or Muslim Spain, as ns heart of the administration and government was within its walls.

Built start in 936-940, the city included ceremonial reception halls, mosques, administrative and government offices, gardens, ns mint, workshops, barracks, residences y baths. Water was gave through aqueducts.

The key reason because that its building was politico-ideological: ns dignity of los Caliph required ns establishment of a new city, a symbol of his power, imitating other Eastern Caliphates. The was constructed in córdoba because it had been the capital of los region (Betis) in roman inn times; this do it less complicated for los Emirate y Caliphate of Cordoba come rule, while lock existed, over al-Andalus. Over all, it demonstrated his superiority over his an excellent rivals, ns Fatimids that Ifriqiya in del norte Africa, too as los Abbasids in Baghdad. Legend likewise says it was built as ns tribute for ns Caliph’s favourite wife: Azahara. Ns complex was prolonged during ns reign that Abd ar-Rahman III’s ellos eran Al-Hakam II (r. 961-976), but delaware his death soon ceased to be los main residence of ns Caliphs. In mil diez it was sacked in a cortés war, y thereafter abandoned, con many elements re-used elsewhere. Its damages were excavated starting representar the 1910s. Only about 10 percent of the 112 hectares (0.43 sq mi) have actually been excavated and restored, however this area contains the sede area, with “two caliphal residences, with associated bathtub complexes, dos aristocratic residences, and service quarters… spaces associated with ns palace guard; some large administrative buildings… ns extraordinary court complicated presided over by los reception hall… los great garden spaces, y just external this area, ns congregational mosque”. A new museum on the edge of los site has been developed low, con much of ns space underground, to minimize disruption to the views of the landscape from the ruins, which are also beginning come be impacted by modern housing.

The archaeological site the Medina Azahara has actually been declared uno Site of social Interest in the monument category because 1923. ~ above January 27, 2015, “Madínat al-Zahra” to be inscribed on the Spain’s Indicative perform of mundo Heritage Sites, in ns category of social property (nº ref 5978).

On July 1, 2018, ns site was listed as un UNESCO mundo Heritage site with ns inscription surname “Caliphate ciudad of Medina Azahara”.

In 2016 received 181,653 visitors, being the fourth most visited social space in the ciudad of Córdoba.

The collection of Madínat al-ZahraIt is located about ocho kilometers west that Córdoba, in the last foothills of ver Morena, on the slope of los Jabal al-Arus, facing ns Guadalquivir valley y oriented representar north to south, on un spur of ns mountain range, between dos ravines, that goes into the countryside is Medina Azahara or Madínat al-Zahra. It has actually been described as los Versailles of ns Middle Ages. It was liked by los extraordinary values of the landscape, permitting to develop un program of hierarchical constructions, in such uno way that the city and the plain prolonged at that is feet were physically and visually conquered by the buildings of the Alcázar. The implantation in ns territory generated a roadway network y hydraulic infrastructures and supply because that its construction, preserved in component to ns present in ns form of continues to be of roads, quarries, aqueducts, almunias y bridges.

Taking advantage of los unevenness of los terrain, the palatine ciudad of Medina Azahara was spread on three terraces; the ciudad precinct adopts a cuadrangular layout, in contrast to los labyrinthine y chaotic opinión characteristic the Muslim urbanism. Of 1500 m of side in east-west direction y about 750 m of norte to the south, it is just deformed in the norte side by ns needs of adaptation to the difficult topography of the land. The topography played ns determining duty in ns configuration of ns city. Its place on los slopes of sierra Morena made it possible to design an urban program, in which los location and the physical partnership between the different constructions would certainly be expressive of the role of each one of them in los whole of i beg your pardon they room part: ns palace is located in los highest part,

Following the arrangement in terraces we discover that ns first coincides to ns residential area of the caliph, complied with by ns official zone (Casa del los Viziers, body of guard, affluent Hall, administrative dependencies, gardens…) to finally casa the ciudad properly said (homes, artisans…) y the Aljama Mosque, separated from the dos previous terraces by an additional specific pared to isolate the palatal complex. The investigation has revealed an urban morphology characterized by los existence of large unbuilt areas, empty the correspond to ns entire southerly front of the Alcázar, thus ensuring the isolation y maintaining its intuitivo openness gastos generales the landscape of los countryside creating an idyllic landscape. In fact, the only spaces developed on this lower level are two broad too much fringes: the western, with an orthogonal urban layout, and the eastern, with ns less strict urbanism.

HistoryThe Caliphate that Cordoba to be an Andalusian estado proclaimed through Abderramán III, of ns Umayyad dynasty, in the year 929 AD with greater political, social y economic splendor that Muslim Spain, making the ciudad of córdoba the most progressed in Europe y the amazement of the world.

In setecientos cincuenta AD, the Umayyad dynasty was toppled by the Abbasids representar the Damascus Caliphate. Abd el-Rahman ben Humeya (Abderraman I), being un surviving member of ns Umayyads, flees come Al-Andalus proclaiming los Emirate that Cordoba in 756 AD live independence of los new ciudad capital of Abbas, Baghdad. Abderramán i did not proclaim Caliph however one of his followers did it, Abderramán III, delaware finishing with ns political instability of los emirate (mainly the revolt of Ómar ben Hafsún). The creation of los caliphate meant increasing to los status of the Caliphate estado of Baghdad con all that entails, both religious y political, in vain with the Abbasid Caliphate.

Under ns reigns that Abderramán III (929-961) and his son y successor Al-Hakam II (961-976) los Cordovan estado was consolidated. That is currently when Abderramán III lacks a símbolo of the religious and political power that represents ns caliphate as it is a palatial city where to reside siguiente to the court. In novecientos treinta y seis AD that ordered the construction of los luxurious Medina Azahara next to the capital, Córdoba. Emerged from nothing, ns royal city concentrates all the political strength of los caliphate.

Diplomatic relations focused on los Christian kingdoms of ns peninsula, with intense dialogues and some warlike confrontations; north Africa, against ns Fatimids who regulated key trade routes with sub-Saharan áfrica from where los gold arrived; and the Mediterranean whereby diplomatic relations with Byzantium were maintained.

With los reign that Hisham II (976-1016) the de verdad protagonism had the ” Hayib ” or prime Minister Almanzor, ns military genius in his struggle that preserved in check the Christian kingdoms the the north arriving to enter León, Pamplona, barna or Santiago del Compostela whereby he took the bells of the pre-Romanesque temple committed to Santiago to Cordoba.

When Almanzor passed away in mil dos AD, sequence problems led to a “fitna” or cortés war in mil diez AD, until mil treinta y uno AD, as soon as it was determined to put an fin to los Caliphate, which now became Al-Ándalus, uno compendium the different small kingdoms or kingdoms. That taifas, losing its hegemony and giving location to a greater press on los part of los Christian kingdoms.

It was during the “fitna” when Medina Azahara was abandoned and began its steady destruction with looting y finally its enteramente oblivion. Ns Almoravids, who stormed representar North áfrica in Al-Andalus in 1086 and unified the Taifa kingdoms debajo their power, emerged their very own architecture, however very small has survived, since the next invasion, the of the Almohads, it imposed an ultra-Orthodox Islamism and destroyed practically all the important Almoravid buildings, along with Medina Azahara y other Caliphate buildings.

Foundation of the cityMedina al-Zahara was built by the first caliph that Al-Andalus, Abd al-Rahman al-Násir (891-961) -or Abderramán III -as component of ns political, economic y ideological program set in motion after the facility of los caliphate. The is said that its structure is connected to ns favorite of the caliph who would be dubbed al-Zahrá (Azahara) but the main factors for its construction are fairly political-ideological: ns dignity the Caliph requires the foundation of un new ciudad symbol the its power in imitation of other oriental caliphates and also to donar its superiority over its an excellent enemies, the Fatimids the Ifriqiyya, the del norte area of los African continent.

Regarding ns origin of los name can come, as has been claimed above, los name of his many beloved wife Azahara, which method “The Flower” who argued to build uno beautiful city outside that Cordoba, a city that would sufrir the surname of the beloved y it would become los “City of al-Zahrá”, the “City of orange Blossom”. Yet this is more legend than reality because al-Zahra also method “The Brilliant”, a word the is pertained to others that, in the language, median “Venus” or ns same “flower”, therefore you have the right to simply refer to ns new y brilliant ciudad of los caliph itself.

Although los origin of the city is no without its legendary elements, the is known that construction started at the fin of 936 of ns Christian era, being ns works by los master alarife Maslama ben Abdallah, y continued because that the next forty, reaching times of his son and successor in los caliphate, al-Hákam II. In 945 the transfer of los court occurs to this city, which at that hora has los mosque (941), although ns Mint or Mint walk not analyze to novecientos cuarenta y siete – 948. As soon as erecting this majestic city, the Cordoban caliph tried to annul, y even surpass, the un asiático caliphs of ns Abbasid, y especially ns famous city y court that Samarra.

The literary y historical messages echo los very huge sums dedicated to that construction, ns enormous works carried fuera for this purpose, the monumentality and artistic splendor – also in ns smallest information – and the luxury y ostentation that the Caliph shown in los receptions y ceremonies the were held there frequently, as in fact the administration y the court moved to the nuevo headquarters. Among others, in its affluent halls would certainly be got Hispanic Christian emperors dispossessed of his throne, ambassadors of los Emperor the Germania, emissaries the Borrell II the Barcelona… torre Balbás(one of the fathers of the monumental restoration in Spain) describes these ceremonies: “After climb among reparado rows the soldiers in uniform uniforms, equipped with bright weapons and in perfect formation, monarchs y ambassadors come at the eastern room of Madinat al- Zahara, open up to uno terrace, who walls spanned rich carpets. In los background, sitting on cushions and surrounded by all the dignitaries the his brilliant court, appeared ns caliph. Similar to an nearly inaccessible deity. Prior to him lock prostrated themselves on the ground, y the sovereign, with insistent fervor, provided them come kiss his hand. ”

The jadeo by ns Catalan painter Dionisio Baixeras, in los Auditorium of los University the Barcelona, intends to recall un reception of ambassadors from Byzantium in Medina Azahara, based on the resources y conventions of Orientalist héctor of ns time, applied in uno forced picturesque restoration of los audience of los Cordovan king to ns Byzantine emissaries accompanied by monks, who room overwhelmed by los magnificence of ns ostentation and splendor of the sumptuous Caliphate court sit in together an particularly site. Back its ar of origin, ns court that Byzantium, was no exactly an instance of austerity.

Destruction and abandonmentAfter much less than a hundred years of ns city’s foundation, every this monumental and magnificent collection was decreased to one immense field of ruins, as it was destroyed and looted by the Berbers in mil diez as ns consequence the the cortés war (or fitna) that He ended the Caliphate of Cordoba. 9 Looting, fighting and burning destroyed the most beautiful city in los West.

After the cortés war (“fitna”) that lugged its destruction, los looting y dismantling of los palatine city continued in succeeding centuries, together it was provided as an artificial quarry for ns construction of other later buildings in the city of Córdoba, falling progressively in oblivion until it disappeared, on an imprecise date, desde the collective ideology.

20th century: Rediscovery y first excavationsBefore the rediscovery that Madínat al-Zahra, los hillside where ns site is located was recognized as viejo Cordoba, due to the fact that during los Middle eras it was thought that top top this point rose los first roman Cordoba erected quickly and semiprovisionally by los praetor Claudius Marcelo y that later, and for factors of health, would move to the banks of ns Guadalquivir. The reason for this original belief about uno foundation Cordoba was due to ns large number of architectural pieces scattered around the hillside, continues to be that multiplied endlessly con just lifting ns foot the land.

It would certainly be representar the 16 century, in completamente rebirth, when the humanists began to discuss los true origin of the so-called old Cordoba, although it was not until los seventeenth siglo when Pedro Diaz ese Rivas intuited that there were too numerous current Cordoba roman remains when it was proceeded come maneuver on some ground, which confirmed its Latin origin, y therefore, what really was under the floor the what they referred to as Cordoba the viejo was not a Roman city, but ns Moorish castle of Abderramán III. Regardless of this smart evidence, the discute was not concluded.

It would certainly not be until los early la edad of los twentieth century, specifically in 1911, during los reign of Alfonso XIII, when ns first excavations started officially, clearing any type of kind the doubt around it, if there was still, of what lay low soil. Representar this moment, and until the long break resulted in by the civil war, los excavations were created regularly. The work began at the points where los ruins were most evident, i beg your pardon was construed as the centrar axis of ns Caliphate complex. From this moment until the death in 1923 of Ricardo Velázquez Bosco, architect responsible for los excavation, over there were consistent tastings in parallel ditches representar north to sur to delimit ns perimeter of the city, one ambitious goal that was not achieved. After 1944, delaware the fin of the armed conflict, ns archaeological projects were resumed delaware a few años of interruption, highlighting those carried fuera de by los architect Félix Hernández that excavated the sede part of los fortress con an area of approximately 10.5 hectares. Defining the basic lines of urbanism of ns palace y undertaking, also, essential restorations such as those carried el fin in ns rich hall or Abderramán III. In 1985, delaware the development of ns autonomies a few año before, ns management of the site is happen on come theJunta ese Andalucía, an company that from this minute on would be responsible for ns task the continuing the work the excavation and recovery.

21st centuryAt present, just 10% of the completamente intramural surface ar of the ciudad has to be excavated, matching to the sede nucleus of los citadel, back the final excavation works carried fuera de in ns site throughout the last years are focusing for los first time on locations not matching to the palatial complex. Specifics the nuevo archaeological campaigns that began in April 2007they have actually been keep going with nuevo findings that have actually made rethink los dimensions of ns whole, focusing especially on the southern ámbito of the city walls, a point where the most vital findings of the final decades room appearing. Thus, campaign delaware campaign, the nuevo morphology y conception the was had about the city is changing little through little. In November of dos mil siete an exceptional discover appeared, ns mosque located more than un kilometer representar the nobleza zone of ns city, later an impressive Islamic road was located, distinct in its type in Spain, too as ns plants that what is intuited favor slums of homes destined to the generalizado class, próximo to those the were discovered innumerable fragments of ceramic rest of day-to-day use. Girlfriend are also trying to uncover out,

Restoration campaigns (2001-2004)Among los most superior interventions of ns set stand out those made on los so-called region of ns fortress. The house of Yafar, whereby it is thought that los caliph’s element minister lived, to be one of the most successful completo restorations that have actually been make in los site. The delimitation that the house was lugged out delaware an exhaustive investigation on los marble, where more than doscientos paving slabs, pared paintings, ns pile and, above all, the monumental portal to be recovered. It also intervened on the so-called house of the Pool, where it is thought that ns dependencies of los Crown Prince can have been, and where the bathroom has actually been studied con great precision in los face of uno future restoration.

Restoration of the rico Salon (since 2009)The interventions planned in the ricas Room consist of of tres phases. The first phase to be awarded by the Junta de Andalucía to the company estudio Methods of repair SL with un budget the 1,099,400 euros. Diez This an initial phase began in February 2009, when los entrance to los public was closed. The objective of ns same was to solve ns problem of wet of los building, i m sorry had already been make the efforts to solve in dos mil uno with ns glazing of the access arcade. October December additionally fell en this phase substitution floor cement by one of marble quarry desde Estremoz (Portugal) together it was originally. November December This phase to be suspended as result of irregularities in the award of ns work.

In march 2014, ns second step began, without the first one having actually been carried out, with the aim of cataloging, cleaning and consolidating the more than 5,000 atauriques because that their succeeding replacement on the walls in their initial positions. The World Monuments Fund added 600,000 euros to undertake these works. This 2nd phase has also been incomplete as result of lack the budget.

Currently, the adinerado Salon continues to it is in closed to the public pending ns completion of ns interventions initiated.

The pool situated in prior of the hall will likewise be recovered, y once ns restoration is finished, los characteristic Andalusian paper of water will be added, hence recovering the first hydraulic facility of ns palatine city.

Ver más: Mapa De La Provincia De Tarragona Por Comarcas, Directorio De Comarcas

ArchitectureDue to los topography of ns land, i beg your pardon is in slope, the city was developed on tres overlapping terraces, which corresponded to three parts that the city separated by walls. The caliphal residence dominated ns entire area representar the top terrace to los north. Los middle esplanade harbored the administration y the houses of los most necessary officials of ns court. Los lower one was intended for los people of ns town and the soldiers, there were los mosque, the markets, ns baths y also los public gardens.

There is also un noticeable separation in between public y private spaces, even though both sectors offer a similar scheme: an open up space, porticoed, action as ns monumental antephase of uno small door in which ns broken street or corridor begins. Reaching ns different rooms. Los most dazzling spaces room those integrated into los official zone, destined to politics activity y to the reception of international personalities, especially the Ambassador Halls, which are two: ns Western Hall y the oriental Hall, both connected to their equivalent gardens.

Great PorchThe great Porch was ns eastern enntrance gate to los enclosure of los quarterdeck, located in prior of los parade ground. Originally it consisted of fifteen arches, con the central horseshoe arch y the various other fourteen arches. Later on it was remodeled, eliminating number of of los most northern arches of ns portico. Los porch had actually approximate dimensions of 111.27 meters long, 2.92 meters wide and 9.46 meter high.

High Garden and Low GardenThe fortress of Medina Azahara has two landscaped enclosures with an axial planimetry and adjacent to each other, dubbed High Garden and Low Garden. Los easternmost, los High Garden, is just in front and at the same height of ns Rich Room. In its center there is uno building known as the central Pavilion, i m sorry is surrounded by 4 swimming pools for both decorative y functional usar for watering the gardens. This garden is surrounded by walls on that eastern, southern and western side. Surrounding to the western pared but at a height number of meters listed below is the Lower Garden, which has not however been excavated in that is entirety.

North GateThe north door opens up in the centrar of the northern wall, it is the señalar of arrival of ns so-called Nogales road, los communication route con the ciudad of córdoba in ns Caliphate era. Los door has a bent plan to facilitate los defense the it, to which to be added los passenger compartment of ns guard desde where the access to be controlled. The phia băc gate, as well as the rest of the wall, is constituted by well-formed stone ashlars put by rope and blight.

Popular culture also says that los caliph’s favorite mrs was constructed as un tribute: Azahara. The norte gate, as well as los rest of the wall, is comprised by well-formed stone ashlars placed by rope and firebrand.

Upper basilical buildingThe role of this building is no clear, i beg your pardon is why it receives countless names: armed forces or army casa (Dar al-Yund), house of the viziers (Dar al-Wuzara) or, more generally, top basilical building. 18 19 This building, located in los eastern part of ns quarterdeck, has basilical plant consists of 5 ships, plus un sixth ship perpendicular to the above ~ above its sur side.

The floor of ns enclosure, i m sorry is still preserved, to be brick. Los walls were painted white and the socket was made of la red ocher, both colors also used in ns decoration of the arches. Columns alternating shafts of red y gray colors, while the blue crowned avispero capitals y red by composite capitals.

Rich room – PalaceThe so-called room of Abd al-Rahman III, un asiático hall or merely rich hall is los most valuable part of ns whole archaeological site, both for its creative quality, together for its historical importance, being thought about without any discussion ns authentic symbol and emblem of the entire Caliphal facility of Madínat al-Zahra.

Nobody doubts at existing that this room was the sede axis of ns palatial enclosure, taken into consideration unanimously amongst specialists as ns hall of ns great palatine ceremonies, parties, ceremonies, agree of international ambassadors y throne room, therefore, cuales we must miss ns sumptuousness y richness the its decoration, from which it has derived the nickname of affluent lounge. Abd al-Rahman III, uno lover of courtly pageantry, liked to admire his visitors, whom he usually received here, that’s why the luxury and virtuosity that Caliphal letras reaches its climax in these rooms.

The construction of the hall it s long only numero 3 years, as researchers have been able come find fuera by the epigraphic inscriptions showed up in ns bases y pilasters inside, which give us un chronology the goes from 953 to 957. On los other hand, los chronological brevity and the it s not long life that Madínat al-Zahra nevertheless assure us of gift in los presence of a very unitary decorative y architectural ensemble, which permits us to admire in this hall, without further additions, los Umayyad Caliphate arte of Abd’s reign al-Rahman III in every its splendor.

The well-off room is no really a single diaphanous space, together its name might lead us to believe, yet in truth it is un set the spaces and compartmentalized rooms, developing all together los morphology of a soltero room divided by arcades Structurally, los room has un basilica floor destinadas with three longitudinal naves, con a transversal one at ns entrance that acts as un portico, con external dimensions of 38 × 28 meters. The heads of this three vertical naves room topped by blind arches of horseshoe, in one of which, the central one, that is an alleged that ns throne would be located representar where the caliph directed ns palatine ceremonial. The sede axis of los set is ns longitudinal sede nave, separated representar the other junto a naves by uno set of 6 horseshoe arches on both sides, if of ns transversal, it is be separate by numero 3 horseshoe arches. Along con these three sede naves y in parallel, flanking both sides, over there are two outer naves separated into three cámaras of uneven size.

If something stands fuera in the rich room, as we have said before, the is because that its lavish decoration. Very first of all, we should highlight los constant usar of the caliphal horseshoe arch con two-colored polychrome y with ns characteristic alternation that voussoirs in reddish and flesh tones from the initial sandy stone used because that construction, very similar to those currently in los mosque (current cathedral) the Córdoba. Los arches space supported consequently by marble columns of los highest top quality that alternative between pink and light blue, thus producing a curious jugar of colors. Ns shafts of ns columns appear topped by ns characteristic hornet’s capitals.

The rest of los surface of los wall was covered entirely with fine decorate panels sculpted in marble. Los theme favored for los panels had ns high cosmological symbolism, something very much in commitment with ns wooden roof the covered ns room, where los stars were stood for in uno clear allusion to ns sky. The motif carved on the panels represented the tree that life, uno motif exported from the old East. Los boards to be executed symmetrically on one axis. On the other hand, los vertically reduced relief gave los decoration an abstract graphic quality, while ns internal decoration, additionally cut in a hard way, had facets y buds the leaves, as well as flower chalices, i m sorry are very typical motifs. Of ns Hispanic-Umayyad art.

Aljama MosqueThe Aljama Mosque is situated outside los walled enclosure, located eastern of the elevado Garden. According to miscellaneous sources, its building took location between los years 941 and 945.

The structure has a cuadrangular floor plan, with approximately 25 meters largo and 18 meters wide. Ns temple, unlike ns Mosque of Cordoba, was constructed well oriented towards Mecca. Its plant is separated into two main parts, ns prayer room and the ablution yard. Ns prayer room is composed of five vertical naves, be separated by arcades each developed by eight horseshoe arches perpendicular to los wall of the quibla. The patio of ablutions is porticoed on three of that is sides. Ns minaretIt has a square floor destinado a seen from the outside and an octagonal floor plan, located siguiente to the phia băc door of los patio.

House of the PoolThe house of the Pool is to los west that the house of Ya’far y to the del sur of the patio of the pillars. The core of los building is a sede courtyard with un pool, i m sorry gives ns building that is name. Dos of los arcades that overlook los courtyard space conserved, each one created by numero 3 horseshoe arcs that were profusely decorated with atauriques. Bath house, about 80 square meter is also conserved. That is believed that Caliph Alhakén II resided in this house.

House that YafarThe house of Yafar obtain its name from Ja’far ibn Abd al-Rahman, designated prime Minister (Hayib) in los year 961. Despite the denomination, we have not yet assured con certainty that los residence that this character to be here, based just in los intuitions y investigations of the specialists. Its structure is articulated around numero 3 spatial areas, organized approximately their matching courtyards, every one of them of various character: one public, one intimate and one the service. Ns official space is constituted by uno building of plant raza to ns basilica, which has actually three longitudinalmente naves that communicate with each other through doors topped through horseshoe arches, as well as ns transverse embarcacion open to los patio, where ns existing post between los buildings is interrupted. Longitudinal ships ns facade, in order to adapt los latter to los space produced by the construction of an adjoining bathroom. Ns facade is arranged by a triple horseshoe arch supported by communes. Together for los decoration of ns building, it to be paved with thick slabs the white marble, except in los patio, wherein violet limestone stones to be used; It additionally highlights the decoration of the façade with vegetal and geometric themes, which is also present in the communication only of the transverse nave y the sede one, i m sorry has dos panels on the fronts and jambs in the span. Other than in the courtyard, wherein violet limestone stones were used; It likewise highlights los decoration of ns façade con vegetal y geometric themes, i beg your pardon is likewise present in ns communication just of ns transverse nave y the sede one, which has two panels on ns fronts y jambs in los span. Except in los courtyard, whereby violet limestone stones to be used; It likewise highlights ns decoration of los façade with vegetal y geometric themes, which is likewise present in los communication just of the transverse nave and the centrar one, i m sorry has dos panels on ns fronts y jambs in los span.

Royal HouseThe royal House, or dame al-Mulk, is located on los highest terrace of ns fortress, receiving this name due to the fact that it is thought that this rooms were whereby Caliph Abd al-Rahman III lived. The building is composed mainly of numero 3 parallel bays and a front part in its southern part, not maintained at present, which had a staircase at each end to allow down to ns lower terrace of the fortress. Despite the looting suffered, the abundant rock decoration con atauriques the its walls also as the terracotta floor is quiet preserved.

Road networkAfter los founding that Madínat al-Zahra y as ns result that it, a serie of success will it is in made that will give the new ciudad its own y independent roadway network. They focus on the western region of Córdoba, y are:

Camino del las Almunias: uno direct path in between Córdoba y Madínat al-Zahra which, in turn, likewise connects los palatine city with the road come Seville along ns north bank of ns Guadalquivir (Cañada de verdad Soriana and Camino Viejo después Almodóvar), y the routes from the leg gate start towards the South, East and West.Camino de Media Ladera: ns direct and independent link representar Medina Azahara to the Córdoba-Badajoz (Yadda) road. Ns stretch that about 1 km is preserved, with un roadway width of between 4 and 7 meters.Camino del los Nogales-Carril del los Toros: uno link the Madínat al-Zahra with the main routes located to ns East (Mérida, Toledo y Zaragoza) without going with Córdoba.Way of the West: ns secondary road that unido Madínat al-Zahra with the main almunias of ns West region (Alamirilla).

The movable artMadínat al-Zahra is not just architecture, but it housed, in its moments of biggest splendor, one exquisite collection of movable arte in the form of piece of diminished format. Currently, most of ns pieces room scattered by collections and museums around los world, since their beauty y exoticism do them very coveted pieces by collectors. Part of the most famous y representative instances of decorate arts that the ciudad of Calipha room exposed here.

Cierva ese Madínat al-ZahraThe deer the Medina AzaharaIt is un small piece of bronze the was make as a small water fountain come decorate one of ns numerous fountains that ns palatine city had, being considered, unanimously, as ns masterpiece of ns Hispano-Muslim sculpture of los Umayyad period. About its chronology, the is commonly customary to day it by specialists in between the final decades of los tenth century y the first la edad of the eleventh century, without being able to provide uno more an exact date yet. The this same piece there are tres replicas the very ir a buscar morphologies, one in the nacional Archaeological museo of Madrid, an additional in los visitor center of Medina Azahara, and one final in the National museum of Qatar that was to buy by an Arab sheik in ~ an international auction, for which he concerned pay, in 1997, 4 million dollars.

The zoomorphic pottery of Madínat al-ZahraThis curious piece, which according to the researchers was component of los gala dinnerware of one of the palace complexes of the city of Medina Azahara, was obtained by los Spanish estado on instead of of ns Junta del Andalucía in April 2003 after the disbursement of uno amount of 220,000 euro to ns London auction room. Due to their morphological features, experts have intuited the this piece of small proportions might perhaps be ns giraffe. About its details use, the is assumed that it could be offered to pour some escribe of liquid. Los decoration is based upon white glaze, as well as tiny fragments that green and manganese. Regarding its chronology, come say that it is dated, by nearly all experts, in los middle año of ns tenth century.

The ewer of los LouvreIt is uno zoomorphic piece that had to leaving Spain after the French looting during the war that independence, being right now in ns showcases of ns Parisian Louvre museum, where it is one of the stars of ns halls of Islamic antiquities. It is a ewer in i beg your pardon the figure of ns peacock is identified without any kind of doubts. On ns use the this piece, together its name indicates, that was uno container destined to los storage the water for the later washing of los hands. The presents the curiosity of include on its surface un bilingual inscription (in Arabic and Latin) the indicates the name of ns artist y the day of its execution, so we can date the piece without any kind of problems in ns year 972.

Another crucial object found was ns ivory box con inscriptions referred to as Al-Mughira pyx, i m sorry is maintained in the Louvre museum.

ValorizationIn recent years ns site that Medina Azahara is being subjected to intense restoration work-related that, despite the great ns of materials by the medieval plundering, restore ns lost splendor con which astonished every who checked out it during the Middle Ages, as soon as Medina Azahara was página de inicio to one of los most vital governmental centers in the world.

Medina Azahara MuseumOn October 9, dos mil nueve Queen Sofía inaugurated the museum of Medina Azahara, with which the is intended come provide ns site con services follow to the historical-artistic importance. This modern infrastructure, dependency on the Ministry the Culture y Sports of ns Junta del Andalucía, is located in ns vicinity of los site y consists of uno building with numero 3 floors, that which two are underground. The center has an ext than siete mil setecientos square meter of parking and a landscaped area; inside there are room because that diverse utilices such as the reception that visitors, ns restoration of historical pieces, one auditorium, adequate spaces for the storage of historical remains of los whole, workplaces of historical-artistic research, uno library because that scholars, ns cafeteria, keep of publications related to the site y Muslim art, y an exhibition area where ns most spectacular piece of the site space exhibited, after many of them, such as los famous Medina Azahara deer, have actually been moved representar the Archaeological museum of Cordova.Aga cannes Award because that Architecture, prestigious internacional award the is given to los main architectural, urban or landscape projects of los Muslim world, or related to it. This museum was design by los architects Fuensanta Nieto y Enrique Sobejano.

Ver más: Visita Un Monumento A Un Cubo, En El Desierto O Junto A Un Lago

In might 2012, he was awarded ns “European museo of los Year” prize by los European museum Forum. This compensation recognizes each year the nuevo museums that have made advances y innovations in the museo field. Ns award-winning museum houses henry Moore’s frostbite “The Egg” because that one year, symbolizing los award.