Santa Maria De La Salute Venecia

17th-century Venice

After los devastating pester of 1630, a social transformationoccurred in Venice. About uno third of ns population (46,000 the 140,000) died. Los decrease in the nobleza population along con financial crises forced Venetian patricians come open the tightly sealed Libro d’oro(Book that Gold) to admit new members in return for funds. From1645-1718, ciento veintisiete persons received nobleza status in exchange for the large sum of 100,000 ducats (in mil novecientos setenta it was same to 10 million dollars).

Estás mirando: Santa maria de la salute venecia

During this period, also though some families remained wealthy, all at once Venice"smercantile realm was shrinking as other colonial powers established transacción routes around ns world. Relatedly, Venice"s political power waned. From1645-49, Venice fought los Ottoman empire in the War that Candia, which result in the loss ofCrete, un major defeat.

Yet, a nuevo form of society took organize in Venice: theater! It ended up being the capital of european theater. Artists painted ephemeral collection designs using approaches of illusion. As we will see, this ephemeral stage sets affected architecture.


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The Venetian Senate commissioned santa Maria della Salute (St. Mary of Health) as ns votive church to give thanks to ns Virgin mar for deliverance from the plague. It complies with in the tradition of pester churches, such as Palladio"s Il Rendentore built delaware the 1575-76 plague. In ns left-hand photo, its large dome is watched on ns left. The is across ns Basin of smo Marco, opposite ns Piazzetta smo Marco. The church is situated at los tip of thesestiere (city zone) that Dorsoduro, y appears come float on ns water. However, itsfoundations room firm. Over a million hardwood piles were sunk to assistance the nuevo building, in ~ an practically prohibitive expensive.The visibility the this place was important for ns votive church that served as a beacon that hope y thanks.

Baldassare Longhena to be thecity’s greatest native architect. He combinedintelligence, ingenuity, technical skill, artistic sensibility, y visual imagination. That introduced ns Baroque format to Venice, and his works stand fuera above his contemporaries. He came representar the artisan tradition since hisfather was un stonemason. Longhenaprobably studied under Scamozzi that was un follower the Palladio. In 1640, he was appointed to los important blog post ofProto (Supervisor) of los Procurators of san Marco, and finished los Procuratie Nuove.Santa Maria della Salute was his biggest commission. His architecture was chosen from the11 tasks submitted to ns competition. His sede plan won fuera de over ns second-place longitudinal destinado a by Antonio Smeraldi.

Longhena designed ns church as un stage collection to host the annual Festa della Salute (Feast that Health), on ns Feast of ns Presentation of the Virgin mar (November 21). Ns doge made uno ceremonial procession from San cuadro to papá noel Maria della Salute.


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The facade is do of white Istrian stone that reflects los light and contrasts with ns shadows that accumulate in ns recesses.

The church utilices ancient architectural forms. Ns facade is a triumphal arch, representing los Virgin Mary"striumph over sin, the plague, and heresy. Ns capitals of los columns are los richly carved Composite stimulate (combining ns scroll y the acanthus leaves), los most ornate of the ancient Orders. Los relief carving y figures enliven los facade. This richness y exuberance is characteristics of Baroque architecture.


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The central plan is spanned by un high semi-circular dome the is raised up by the octagonal drum. They are clearly visible representar the exterior. The centrar dome refers to san Marco, wherein theprocession of ns Feast of health begins.

Longhena transformed the hefty buttresses against los drum the support the dome right into visually interesting features: pedestals with statues of the Apostles andvolutes (round scrolls). These forms evoke los Assumption of ns Virgin Mary into Heaven, i beg your pardon was witnessed by ns Apostles and resulted in her crowing in Heaven. Ns volutes symbolize the jewels on she crown.

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In these fuera de views that the junto a facades, we see the Palladian home windows that Palladio invented based on windows in old bath complexes. Over there are likewise Corinthian pilasters. Thus, los High Renaissance vocabulary continues but the fuera de is reinvented through the movement and exuberance of ns Baroque.


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On los left is los plan. On los right is the verticalmente section (to understand un section, imagine you have cut los building in fifty percent along the largo axis and look inside to see ns elevation view).

The destinadas shows ns two key spaces, los octagon con a circulo dome y the elliptical room (a one flanked through semicircles) with ns smaller circulo dome. Los octagon is ns mainbody of ns church and the elliptical space is ns chancel the houses los high altar. Thus, the destinadas is sede but there is a longitudinalmente axis since of los extension of los chancel.

The vertical section shows los elevations of los two domes. Friend can notice that your profiles on the fuera are heightened through uno double dome in the same way that smo Marco"s domes are.

Thecommittee of five nobles that advised the Senate on choosing the model stipulated that los church need to be “magnificent y with pomp,” fine lit, y the high altar should be plainly visible from entrance whereas the lado altars have to come right into view gradually. This mystery and revelation would make los processions an ext dramatic!

Longhena’s destinadas achieves these objectives. The learned desde Palladio’s Rendentore just how to create uno spectacle that unfolds along an axis. At papa noel Maria della Salute, from the entrance, you have the right to see the chancel arch framing los high altar, however you can not see los six lado altars because los piers supporting the dome obstruct them. You move along the centrar axis, through los main domed space, toward los chancel with ns high altar y its miraculous icon of los Virgin Mary. As you move, the página chapels in los continuous ambulatory (ringed corridor) are progressively revealed, y if you stand under los dome,each one is framed by one arch and piers.

Longhena"s an excellent achievement to be to reconcile the central plan of ns Byzantine church (San Marco) with ns centralized Latin-cross destinadas of Palladio"s churches, like smo Giorgio Maggiore and Il Rendentore. LikePalladio"s churches, santa Maria della Salute emplees clear geometric forms based on simple mathematical ratios y features thermal windows y colossal columns top top high bases.

However, Longhena"s church departs representar these precedents in itsBaroque characteristics:

Forms have greater movement y energyChiaroscuro: constrast in between light y darkPlay of difference geometrical shapes (the more complicated shape of los octagon transforms into circular dome)The forecourt of ns polygonal staircase reaches fuera into ns urban an are to draw the viewer in.


This is the doméstica view, simply as you comienzo to move into the sede domed space y walk toward the altar. You deserve to see only partial see of ns few side chapels. The centrar space is well lit representar the main dome and the secondary dome gastos generales the high altar illuminates the chancel and draws girlfriend toward ns miraculous icon. The changes in illumination, representar lit to shadowy (the ambulatory) to really bright, creates ns visual result of spaces receding into one another.

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The doméstico is scenographic because it watch like a stage setting. In various other words, the begs to it is in populated. We can imagine the doge and his entourage the Senators and other an excellent Council members, followed by los confraternity members, handling through this an are annually to salary homage to the Virgin Mary, stood for on ns altar. Ns ambulatory listed space for civilization to departure without clashing right into those in the sede space.


Comparison the Longhena, papa noel Maria della Salute, 1631, y Palladio, san Giorgio Maggiore, designed 1565: Facades
Comparison the Longhena, papa noel Maria della Salute, 1631, and Palladio, smo Giorgio Maggiore, designed 1565: Plans


Comparison the Longhena, santa Maria della Salute, 1631, and Palladio, smo Giorgio Maggiore, draft 1565: Interiors